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Kasparov - Deep Blue
Kasparov - Deep Blue 1996 - 4:2. Kasparov - Deep Blue 1997 - 2.5:3.5 Last game, won by Deep Blue (white) (German notation): 1. e4 c6 2. d4 d5 3. Sc3 dxe4 4. Sxe4 Sd7 5. Sg5 Sgf6 6. Ld3 e6 7. S1f3 h6 8. Sxe6 De7 9. 0-0 fxe6 10. Lg6+ Kd8 11. Lf4 b5 12. a4 Lb7 13. Te1 Sd5 14. Lg3 Kc8 15. axb5 cxb5 16. Dd3 Lc6 17. Lf5 exf5 18. Txe7 Lxe7 19. c4 NEW YORK (Reuter) - Garry Kasparov's legendary resolve broke down Sunday in a defeat by the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue that created chess history -- the first time a program has triumphed over a reigning world cham- pion in a classical chess match. Under psychological stress since game two of the six-game series a week ago, when he needlessly resigned in a drawn position, Kasparov gave up after only 19 moves and just more than an hour of the sixth and final game Sunday. "One man, maybe the best in the world, cracked under the pressure and that has nothing to do with the computer being unbeatable," Kasparov told a news conference. "I could hardly explain what I did today." The humbled grandmaster apologized for his performance and said he was "ashamed" but persisted with his view that the match was essentially unfair because he had no access to the computer's pre-match games or any of the IBM printouts during the contest, worth $700,000 to the winner and $400,000 to the loser. "All games must be published," Kasparov said, turning to Deep Blue team manager Chung-Jen "CJ" Tan at the news conference. "Everyone who knows chess has an interest in seeing it. I believe it is your obligation to publish the printouts of everything Deep Blue was doing in this match." Tan responded that the printouts would be made accessible "at an appropriate time" but did not say exactly when. During the contest the two sides agreed to secure the printouts with a neutral party, Match Arbiter Carol Jarecki. Deep Blue, improved and modified from the one that lost to Kasparov in Philadelphia in February 1996, pushed the champion to psychological limits in this match that few of his human challengers in recent years have accomplished. In six games played over nine days, the system won two, drew three and lost one -- the opening encounter on May 3 -- for a final match score of 3 1/2 points to 2 1/2 points. One point is awarded for a win and a 1/2 point for a draw. Deep Blue's match win was the first by a chess-playing computer in a tradi- tional format in which games can last as long as seven hours. Kasparov said he would play the system again only if the match had a neutral sponsor. IBM sponsored the event and the money the computer won will go back into the company's parallel processing project. The 34-year-old Kasparov, considered the best player in the history of the ancient game, lost a match most expert observers believed he would win. Many said he should have played his usual, swashbuckling attacking style instead of the careful, slow maneuvering he undertook to try and outwit the machine. "The reason Garry lost was that he was not true to himself, not true to his character or his reputation," said grandmaster Ron Henley of the United States. "He psyched himself out with his anti-computer strategy and he was unable to play with his full potential and full genius." Kasparov said as much himself after walking quickly out of the playing room looking stunned, waving his arms in distress. "I was playing against myself and something I couldn't recognize," he said in another reference to the impressive way the system played. "My biggest mistake was following the advice of computer advisers who recommended I play this way." In Sunday's game he blundered by allowing Deep Blue to sacrifice a knight and obtain an overwhelming positional advantage. Deep Blue, playing with the white pieces, went on to take Kasparov's queen in exchange for a rook and a bishop but the position proved hopeless for the human player. Team manager Tan praised Kasparov. "Garry has a brilliant mind and he understands where computers can take us," he said. The event was part chess match and part research project to help build computers that can make complex, simultaneous calculations for applications such as weather forecasting, air traffic control and molecular dynamics, according to IBM. Deep Blue is an IBM RS/6000 SP parallel processor with specialized microchips for chess that can examine hundreds of millions of possible moves per second. Since their first match, the machine's speed has been doubled and it has been infused with more chess knowledge.
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